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Rationale for Architecture Topics

Existing computer science and engineering curricula generally include the topic of computer architecture. Coverage may range from a required course to a distributed set of concepts that are addressed across multiple courses.

As an example of the latter, consider an early programming course where the instructor introduces parameter passing by explaining that computer memory is divided into cells, each with a unique address. The instructor could then go on to show how indirect addressing uses the value stored in one such cell as the address from which to fetch a value for use in a computation. There are many concepts from computer architecture bound up in this explanation of a programming language construct.

While the recommended topics of parallel architecture could be gathered into an upper level course and given explicit treatment, they can be similarly interwoven in lower-level courses. Because multicore, multithreaded designs with vector extensions are now mainstream, more languages and algorithms are moving to support data and thread parallelism. Thus, students are going to naturally start bumping into parallel architecture concepts earlier in their core courses.

Similarly, with their experience of social networking, cloud computing, and ubiquitous access to the Internet, students are familiar users of distributed computation, and so it is natural for them to want to understand how architecture supports these applications. Opportunities arise at many points, even in discussing remote access to departmental servers for homework, to drop in remarks that open student's eyes with respect to hardware support for distributed computing.

Introducing parallel and distributed architecture into the undergraduate curriculum goes hand in hand with adding topics in programming and algorithms. Because practical languages and algorithms bear a relationship to what happens in hardware, explaining the reasoning behind a language construct, or why one algorithmic approach is chosen over another will involve a connection with architecture.

A shift to "thinking in parallel" is often cited as a prerequisite for the transition to widespread use of parallelism. The architecture curriculum described here anticipates that this shift will be holistic in nature, and that many of the fundamental concepts of parallelism and distribution will be interwoven among traditional topics.

There are many architecture topics that could be included, but the goal is to identify those that most directly impact and inform undergraduates, and which are well established and likely to remain significant over time. For example, GPGPUs are a current hot topic, but even if they lose favor, the underlying mechanisms of multithreading and vector parallelism have been with us for over four decades, and will remain significant because they arise from fundamental issues of hardware construction.

The proposal divides architecture topics into four major areas: Classes of architecture, memory hierarchy, floating-point representation, and performance metrics. It is assumed that floating point representation is already covered in the standard curriculum, and so it has been included here merely to underscore that for high performance parallel computing, where issues of precision, error, and round off are amplified by the scale of the problems being solved, it is important for students to appreciate the limitations of the representation.

Architecture Classes topics are meant to encourage coverage of the major ways in which computation can be carried out in parallel by hardware. Understanding the differences is key to appreciating why different algorithmic and programming paradigms are needed to effectively use different parallel architectures. The classes are organized along two dimensions: control vs. data parallelism, and the degree to which memory is partitioned.

Memory Hierarchy is covered in the traditional curriculum, but when parallelism and distribution come into play, the issues of atomicity, consistency, and coherence affect the programming paradigm, where they appear, for example, in the explanation of thread safe libraries.

Performance Metrics present unique challenges in the presence of PDC because of asynchrony that results in unrepeatable behavior. In particular, it is much harder to approach peak performance of PDC systems than for serial architectures.

Many of the architecture learning goals are listed as belonging to an architecture course. The teaching examples, however, describe ways that they can be introduced in lower level courses. Some topics are indicated as belonging to a second course in architecture or other advanced courses. These are not included in the core curriculum. We have merely included them as guidance for topical coverage in electives, should a department offer such courses.